Publicity of ADR knowledge

Author:Henan sigma Biotechnology Co., Ltd Release time:2021-05-16

1. What is adverse drug reaction?

A: adverse drug reaction (ADR) refers to the harmful reactions of qualified drugs that have nothing to do with the purpose of medication. Adverse drug reactions are caused by the inherent characteristics of drugs, any drug may cause adverse reactions.

2. What are the side effects of drugs? Are there any differences between side effects and adverse reactions? How to prevent it?

A: it's commonly known by common people; Side effects & quot; It refers to adverse drug reactions. Academically, the side effects of drugs are only one kind of adverse drug reactions, also known as side effects, which are related to the pharmacological activity of drugs but not related to the purpose of drug use. Drugs with such reactions have more than two pharmacological effects. For example, atropine can relieve gastrointestinal muscle spasm and dilate the pupil. When patients take atropine to treat gastrointestinal pain, it is easy to produce side effects of blurred vision. In addition to side effects (side effects), adverse drug reactions also include toxic effects (toxic reactions), sequelae effects, allergic reactions, etc.

Generally speaking, the side effects of drugs are mild. If some people have serious side effects, they should consider using other drugs.

When patients take a certain drug for the first time, they usually start from a lower dose. After taking it, they should pay attention to the curative effect and whether there are side effects; If the curative effect and side effects are not obvious, the dose can be increased appropriately according to the doctor's advice, but it can not exceed the maximum therapeutic dose. After increasing the dose, we should closely observe whether there are adverse reactions.

3. What is the toxicity of drugs?

A: toxic reaction, also known as toxic effect, refers to the serious functional disorder and histopathological changes caused by drugs. Drugs with strong pharmacological effect and close therapeutic dose to toxic dose are easy to cause toxic reactions. In addition, liver and kidney dysfunction, the elderly and children are prone to toxic reactions. A few people are too sensitive to the effect of drugs, or their own liver and kidney functions are abnormal. In the range of conventional treatment dose, the symptoms will appear when others overdose.

4. What is drug allergy?

A: drug allergy, also known as allergic reaction, is a special reaction of sensitized patients to certain drugs. Drugs or their metabolites react with body specific antibodies as antigens or stimulate sensitized lymphocytes to cause tissue damage or physiological dysfunction. The reaction only occurred in a few patients, which has nothing to do with the known nature of the drug, and has no linear relationship with the dose. The nature of the reaction is different, and it is not easy to predict. The induction period is needed for the first contact, and the reaction disappears when the drug is stopped. Drugs with similar chemical structure are prone to cross or incomplete cross allergic reactions. Some diseases can increase the sensitization of drugs to the body. The main clinical manifestations of drug-induced allergic reactions are skin rash, angioneurotic edema, anaphylactic shock, serum sickness syndrome, asthma and so on. Allergy test should be done before using drugs or allergic constitution.

In order to prevent allergic reactions, the relevant departments stipulate that some drugs such as penicillin must be skin tested before application. But a few people will have allergic reactions during skin test; Sometimes the skin test may be false negative, and a few patients with negative skin test may also have anaphylactic shock; Individual sensitive patients even smell a little when others inject penicillin, shock occurs. In particular, many drugs that do not require skin tests may also cause allergic reactions. People with a history of allergy to other substances should be very careful when using any drugs. Patients with a history of drug allergy must tell the doctor about the situation when seeking medical treatment, and avoid taking the same or similar drugs again.

5. Are all drugs likely to cause adverse reactions?

A: Yes. Any drug may cause adverse reactions, but due to the individual differences between people, the adverse reactions of different people to the same drug can be very different, some people have mild reactions, some people have severe reactions; Some people have this reaction, some people have that reaction.

Many people believe that only fake drugs, substandard inferior drugs, medical staff or patients themselves improper use of drugs, can cause adverse reactions. In fact, many drugs that have passed strict examination and approval can also cause adverse reactions in some people under the condition of normal usage and dosage.

6. What is drug interaction?

A: drug interaction, that is, the interaction between drugs, refers to that one drug changes the pharmacological effect of another drug taken at the same time. As a result, the effect of one drug may be strengthened or weakened, or the effect of two drugs may be strengthened or weakened at the same time.

Drug interactions can be divided into two categories: (1) pharmacokinetic interaction refers to the change of absorption, distribution or metabolism of one drug by another. For example, Ca2 + ions in antacid drugs are chelated with tetracycline, which can not be absorbed, thus affecting the absorption of tetracycline and the curative effect. For another example, astemizole is metabolized by CY (p3a4) enzyme, and ketoconazole is the inhibitor of CY (p3a4). When both of them are taken at the same time, the metabolism of astemizole is blocked due to the inhibition of metabolizing enzyme, which leads to the increase of plasma concentration and adverse reactions. ② Pharmacodynamic interaction refers to the interaction between agonists and antagonists at the receptor site.

7. What are the clinical manifestations of ADR?

A: Generally speaking, adverse drug reactions may involve various systems, organs and tissues of the human body, and their clinical manifestations are very similar to those of common diseases and frequently occurring diseases, such as skin appendages damage (rash, pruritus, etc.), digestive system damage (nausea, vomiting, abnormal liver function, etc.), urinary system damage (hematuria, abnormal renal function, etc.) Systemic damage (anaphylactic shock, fever, etc.).

8. Why are some adverse drug reactions difficult to predict?

A: the inducing factors of adverse drug reactions include non drug factors and drug factors. The former includes age, sex, heredity, susceptibility and disease; The latter includes the side effects of drugs, drug interactions and the influence of excipients. Therefore, the adverse reactions of the same drug may be different in patients of different ages, genders, races, constitutions, indications and pathological states. In addition, the influence of excipients in drugs and their preparations makes the problem more complicated, which is the unpredictable reason of adverse drug reactions.

9. What should patients do when they find suspicious adverse drug reactions?

A: if a patient finds a suspicious adverse drug reaction, he should first stop taking the suspicious drug. If the symptoms are serious or do not relieve after stopping the drug, he should go to the hospital in time for treatment. Consult your doctor. If the suspected symptoms are indeed adverse drug reactions, you should avoid taking the same drugs in the future. According to the regulations of the measures for the administration of adverse drug reaction reporting and monitoring (No. 81 order of the Ministry of Health), if an individual discovers a new or serious adverse drug reaction, he can report it to the doctor in charge, or to the drug production and trading enterprises or local adverse drug reaction monitoring institutions, and provide relevant medical records when necessary.

10. How to detect adverse reactions? How to deal with adverse reactions?

A: after using the drug, a few patients may have drowsiness, dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, rash, itching, weakness, dry mouth and other symptoms. Very few patients may have serious adverse reactions, including systemic rash with pruritus, severe urticaria, severe erythema multiforme, epidermolysis bullosa, abnormal liver function, anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reaction, syncope, interstitial nephritis, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, etc. Once the patient has suspected symptoms, he should stop the drug immediately. Some symptoms can be improved by himself after stopping the drug. If the symptoms are serious or do not improve after stopping the drug, it is recommended to go to the hospital for examination and treatment.

1. How to treat ADR?

Answer: the principle of treatment of adverse drug reactions is consistent with other common diseases and multiple diseases. However, the treatment of adverse drug reactions must stop suspicious drugs in time, and timely use other drugs that can help the drug discharge from the body and protect the function of related organs.

12. How to read drug instructions correctly?

A: the user's Manual of a drug generally includes a brief introduction to all aspects of the drug. Patients should read it carefully before taking it, especially the indications, contraindications, usage and dosage, adverse reactions, drug interactions, precautions and other aspects of the drug. Taking drugs must comply with the provisions of the manual. However, at present, the introduction of these contents in the manual is generally very simple. For example, in terms of adverse reactions, only the main and known adverse reactions of the drug are listed, and some adverse reactions only occurred in a few or individual people are not necessarily listed. Some old drugs that have been on the market for many years also find new and serious adverse reactions from time to time.

The manual lists the medication methods, such as intramuscular injection, intravenous injection, several times a day and so on. Don't make a mistake; The dose of a drug is the safe and effective dose for most people. Some people are particularly sensitive to the effect of drugs because of individual differences. Adverse reactions may occur at very low doses. This situation may not be found before the drug is put on the market. Therefore, before medication, even if carefully read the instructions, according to the provisions of the instructions to take, but also pay attention to the adverse reactions of drugs.

13.Why should the dosage specified in the instructions be followed?

A: the dosage specified in the drug instructions generally refers to the average dosage or range of dosage for adults aged 18-60. If the dosage is lower than this, there may be no curative effect. If the dosage is higher than this, there may be toxic reaction. Within this reasonable range, increasing the dose appropriately may improve the curative effect, but it is not absolute. Some people who are sensitive to drugs can also have toxic reactions in this dose range, which should be paid attention to.

14.Why some people are not allergic to some kind of medicine before, but allergic later?

A: the human body has never been exposed to a certain kind of drug before, and there is no antibody to this kind of drug in the body. Generally, there will be no allergic reaction. After contact with this drug, the body has antibodies, and then encounter this drug, allergic reactions may occur. In addition, some people's allergic reactions are mainly allergic to impurities, excipients and additives in drugs. Different manufacturers use different production processes or equipment, different excipients and additives, and the impurities of products are different; Not allergic before, allergic later & quot; What's going on. In addition, an individual's immune system can change.

15.Does adverse drug reactions mean that there must be something wrong with the doctor's prescription?

A: not necessarily. Whether the doctor's prescription has problems depends on whether the doctor's prescription conforms to the provisions of the drug instructions. It can't be said that the doctor's prescription has problems just because there are adverse reactions.

16.Why not drink while taking medicine?

A: there is ethanol in the wine. Ethanol can not only accelerate the metabolic transformation of some drugs in vivo, but also induce adverse drug reactions. Long term drinking may cause liver function damage, affect the liver metabolism of drugs, and increase the adverse reactions of many drugs. In particular, drinking when taking medicine can expand the digestive tract and increase drug absorption, which is easy to cause adverse reactions. Drinking when taking barbiturates can enhance the central inhibitory effect of barbiturates and cause harm. Cephalosporins can affect the metabolism of ethanol, resulting in disulfiram like reactions, such as facial flushing, headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure, drowsiness and hallucination. In addition, some drugs can aggravate the damage of alcohol to human body. For example, ranitidine can reduce the secretion of gastric juice and aggravate the damage of ethanol to gastric mucosa; Metronidazole can inhibit the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase and aggravate the toxic reaction of ethanol. Therefore, it is not suitable to drink when taking medicine.

17.What should the elderly pay attention to?

A: Generally speaking, the organ function of the elderly is degraded, metabolism is slow, and adverse drug reactions are easy to occur; The elderly often suffer from more than one disease, some elderly people also take some health care drugs, medicine containing health products, so the elderly should be especially careful, when choosing drugs, we should consult doctors more, do not choose drugs with more adverse reactions, reduce the dosage of drugs properly, avoid long-term medication, and avoid adverse drug interaction as much as possible.

18.What should pregnant women pay attention to?

A: when pregnant women use drugs, they may not only be harmed by adverse drug reactions, but also many drugs can enter the fetus through the placenta, damaging the growth and development of the fetus. If the patient's condition really needs medication, we must fully listen to the opinions of the medical staff, carefully select and strictly abide by the prescribed usage and dosage.